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  1. 12 Nov 2014
    Adjunctive steroid therapy for managing pulmonary tuberculosis New
    Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common infectious disease. Although curable with standard anti-pulmonary tuberculosis drugs, it has been reported that an individuals recovery could be improved by adding corticosteroids to their treatment. Current clinical guidelines advise the use of corticosteroids for treatment of other types of tuberculosis; tuberculosis ...
  2. 21 Nov 2014
    Amantadine and rimantadine to prevent and treat influenza A in children and the elderly Updated
    Review question As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is currently used for people with influenza A. In previous pandemics, the virus was susceptible to amantadine and rimantadine. If they are safe and the circulating strain proves to be susceptible to these drugs, they could be an alternative for managing influenza. ...
  3. 14 Dec 2014
    Antibacterial chlorhexidine applied to the vagina during labour to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal infection in the newborn Updated
    There is no evidence to show that washing the vagina with the antibacterial liquid chlorhexidine or using a chlorhexidine gel during labour reduces group B β-hemolytic streptococcal (GBS) infections in babies. A woman's vagina normally contains numerous bacteria that generally do not pose any problems to her or her baby. However, occasionally a baby ...
  4. 3 Dec 2014
    Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria in people with cystic fibrosis  Updated
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are bacteria that are in the same family as tuberculosis and are commonly found in the soil and water. These bacteria can be found in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis and can cause their lung function to worsen. Although there are guidelines on which antibiotics to use to treat lung infection due to these bacteria, ...
  5. 6 Nov 2014
    Antibiotics for meconium-stained amniotic fluid in labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections Updated
    Meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is the result of waste material from the fetal colon passing into the mother's amniotic cavity. Its incidence increases in post-term pregnancies. Pregnant women with MSAF are more likely to develop maternal complications including inflammation of the fetal membranes caused by a bacterial infection (chorioamnionitis), ...
  6. 2 Dec 2014
    Antidepressants for people with epilepsy and depression New
    Background Depressive disorders occur in approximately one-third of people with epilepsy, often requiring antidepressant treatment. However, depression often goes untreated in people with epilepsy, partly due to fear that antidepressants might cause seizures. There are different classes of antidepressants, however they all aim to increase key neurotransmitters ...
  7. 15 Dec 2014
    Antioxidant vitamins and minerals for male subfertility Podcast Updated
    Review question: do supplementary oral antioxidants improve fertility outcomes for subfertile men when compared with placebo, no treatment or another antioxidant? Background: many subfertile men who are part of a couple undergoing fertility treatment are also taking dietary supplements in the hope of improving their fertility. It is important that ...
  8. 10 Dec 2014
    Are shorter courses of systemic steroids as effective as conventional longer courses in the treatment of patients with flare-ups of COPD? Updated
    Why is this question important? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is a long-term lung condition that is commonly associated with smoking. Patients with COPD may experience flare-ups (exacerbations), often precipitated by infection, in which symptoms such as breathlessness, cough and phlegm ...
  9. 5 Nov 2014
    Artificial corneal devices versus human donor corneas for people undergoing repeat corneal transplantation New
    Review question Our objective was to compare the success of artificial corneal devices versus donor (human) corneas in people who had already had at least one donor cornea transplant that had not worked. Background There are several types of corneal transplantations. The type of transplantation depends on how much of the cornea (front part of the ...
  10. 19 Dec 2014
    Asking men to pass a catheter into their own urethra to try to stop a urethral stricture from coming back New
    BACKGROUND About one in 300 men are affected by a condition called urethral stricture where part of the urethra scars causing it to become narrow. Most urethral strictures are caused by injury or infection. The main symptom is difficulty passing urine. In at least half of patients, urethral strictures come back within two years after they have a surgical ...

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