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  1. 25 Jan 2015
    Artificial limb rehabilitation for older people with a leg amputated at or above the knee because of blood circulation problems Updated
    Problems with inadequate circulation in the legs (dysvascularity), particularly in people over the age of 60 years, can be so severe that they need a leg amputated. This may be as high as at or above the knee. Accompanying medical conditions (co-morbidities) such as diabetes, cardiovascular or heart disease can affect a person's rehabilitation. When ...
  2. 23 Jan 2015
    In people undergoing emergency surgery to the chest or abdomen, how effective is transfusing a person's own blood compared with donor blood New
    Background Trauma is the leading cause of death in people under the age of 45 years. Over the past 20 years, transfusions using an individual's own blood, salvaged during surgery through a process called 'cell salvage' (also known as intraoperative blood salvage), have been used as an alternative to blood products donated from other individuals (standard ...
  3. 23 Jan 2015
    Pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy for preventing infant infection Updated
    There is not enough evidence to assess whether using pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy can prevent infant infections. Although the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease is variable across the world, the rate of serious illness or death is high in children who get this infection. The Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) organism colonizes ...
  4. 22 Jan 2015
    Extracorporeal (external to the body) membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for critically ill adults New
    Review question: Effect of ECMO on survival in critically ill adults. Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a form of life support that targets the heart and lungs. For patients with severe lung failure, ECMO provides extracorporeal gas exchange. For those with severe heart failure or cardiac arrest, ECMO (extracorporeal cardiopulmonary ...
  5. 22 Jan 2015
    Transient elastography for measurement of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease New
    Background Liver fibrosis is a change in the microscopic structure of the liver because of liver inflammation. After many years of excessive alcohol consumption, liver fibrosis progresses to cirrhosis. Abstaining from alcohol may stop the fibrosis from further progression into significant or severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. The latter lead to complications ...
  6. 22 Jan 2015
    Zonisamide for neuropathic pain in adults New
    Neuropathic pain can arise from damage to nerves and injury to the central nervous system. It is different from pain messages carried along healthy nerves from damaged tissue (a fall, or cut, or arthritic knee). Neuropathic pain is treated by different medicines than those used for pain from damaged tissue. Medicines like paracetamol or ibuprofen are ...
  7. 22 Jan 2015
    Dehydroepiandrosterone for women in the peri- or postmenopausal phase New
    Review question Cochrane authors investigated whether DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) supplementation is safe and improves quality of life, menopausal symptoms, and sexual function for women in the peri- or postmenopausal phase. Background During menopause a fluctuation and eventually a decrease in estrogen levels occur. These hormonal changes can cause ...
  8. 21 Jan 2015
    Different ways of Identifying women with gestational diabetes Updated
    Evidence is insufficient to permit judgement of which is the best way to identify women who have gestational diabetes. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that enables cells to absorb glucose to turn it into energy. During pregnancy, maternal resistance to insulin develops so that glucose can more easily cross the placenta to the growing foetus. ...
  9. 20 Jan 2015
    Conservative management for men with urinary incontinence after prostate surgery Updated
    Background information The prostate is a male sex gland that surrounds the outlet of the bladder. Two main diseases of the prostate (cancer of the prostate, and benign (non-cancerous) prostatic enlargement) can be treated by surgery but some men suffer leakage of urine (urinary incontinence) afterwards. Conservative treatments of the leakage such ...
  10. 20 Jan 2015
    Rituximab for rheumatoid arthritis New
    We examined research published up to January 2014 on the effect of rituximab for people with rheumatoid arthritis. From eight studies evaluating 2720 people with rheumatoid arthritis, we found that rituximab probably: - improved pain, function and other symptoms; - reduced disease activity; - reduced joint damage as seen on the x-ray. We often do not ...

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