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  1. 31 Mar 2014
    Clonidine, lofexidine and similar medications for the management of opioid withdrawal Updated
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of alpha2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine, lofexidine, guanfacine and tizanidine) in managing withdrawal in people who are dependent on opioid drugs (eg , heroin, methadone). Background Managed withdrawal, or detoxification, is a required first step for longer-term treatments of opioid dependence. ...
  2. 27 Mar 2014
    Can people be helped to stop smoking before they have surgery? Updated
    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for complications after surgery. Stopping smoking before surgery is likely to reduce the risk of complications. We reviewed the evidence about the effects of providing smoking cessation interventions to people awaiting surgery on their success in quitting at the time of surgery and longer-term, and at complications ...
  3. 1 Mar 2014
    Can interventions for parents and people caring for children reduce children's exposure to tobacco smoke
    Background Children exposed to cigarette smoke (environmental tobacco smoke) are at greater risk of lung problems, infections and serious complications including sudden infant death syndrome. Preventing exposure to cigarette smoke in infancy and childhood might therefore significantly improve children's health worldwide. Parental smoking is a common ...
  4. 26 Feb 2014
    Is the workplace an effective setting for helping people to stop smoking Podcast
    Background The workplace appears to be a useful setting for helping people to stop smoking. Large groups of smokers are available who can easily be reached and helped, using proven methods. It is also in the employers’ interests to improve the health of their workforce. Recent changes introducing anti-smoking laws in many developed countries may have ...
  5. 13 Feb 2014
    Anticonvulsants for alcohol dependence
    Review question This review looked at evidence on the efficacy and acceptability of anticonvulsants alone or in combination with another medication or a psychosocial intervention for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Background Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial ...
  6. 6 Feb 2014
    Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence
    Background Methadone is widely used as a replacement for illicit opioid use such as heroin in medically-supported opioid substitution maintenance programmes. Two other drugs have been used to help reduce illicit opioid use, specifically buprenorphine and LAAM (levo-alpha-acetylmethadol). LAAM is not used in current clinical practice. Buprenorphine ...
  7. 4 Feb 2014
    Can brief interventions delivered in schools reduce substance use among adolescents?
    Adolescents worldwide are known to use both legal and illegal substances to different degrees, which can lead to other problems. Brief interventions are short programmes that aim to help reduce or stop substance use, in this case among adolescents. We conducted a Cochrane systematic review to look at the effectiveness of school-based brief interventions ...
  8. 23 Jan 2014
    Do acupuncture and related therapies help smokers who are trying to quit
    We reviewed the evidence that acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrical stimulation help people who are trying to stop smoking. Background Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese therapy, generally using fine needles inserted through the skin at specific points in the body. Needles may be stimulated by hand or using an electric current (electroacupuncture). ...
  9. 8 Jan 2014
    Interventions for female drug-using offenders
    Background Drug-using offenders naturally represent a socially excluded group where drug use is more prevalent than in the rest of the population. A growing number of female offenders are being incarcerated for drug-related crimes. For this reason it is important to investigate what we know about what works for female offenders. Study characteristics The ...
  10. 8 Jan 2014
    Do medications used to treat depression help smokers who are trying to quit
    Background and review questions Some medications and supplements that have been used to treat depression (antidepressants) have been tested to see whether they also help people who are trying to stop smoking. Two antidepressants, bupropion (Zyban) and nortriptyline, are sometimes prescribed to help with quitting smoking. This review set out to ...

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