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  1. 5 Feb 2014
    Hyaluronidase for reducing perineal trauma during vaginal birth
    Vaginal deliveries are associated with perineal trauma that may be unexpected tears or surgical as a result of episiotomy. Many techniques have been used to prevent perineal trauma, such as antenatal perineal massage or perineum warm compresses. Their effectiveness in reducing perineal trauma has been identified by researchers. Perineal hyaluronidase ...
  2. 30 Apr 2013
    Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma
    Antenatal perineal massage helps reduce both perineal trauma during birth and pain afterwards. Most women are keen to give birth without perineal tears, cuts and stitches, as these often cause pain and discomfort afterwards, and this can impact negatively on sexual functioning. Perineal massage during the last month of pregnancy has been suggested as ...
  3. 28 Feb 2013
    Care for pregnant women who have experienced genital cutting
    Female genital cutting (FGC) also known as female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision is when some or all of a woman's or girl's external genital organs are cut or damaged for cultural beliefs, or reasons not connected with medical treatments. It is often performed by traditional practitioners such as traditional birth attendants without ...
  4. 14 Nov 2012
    Episiotomy for vaginal birth
    Vaginal tears can occur during childbirth, most often at the vaginal opening as the baby's head passes through, especially if the baby descends quickly. Tears can involve the perineal skin or extend to the muscles and the anal sphincter and anus. The midwife or obstetrician may decide to make a surgical cut to the perineum with scissors or scalpel (episiotomy) ...
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