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  1. 25 Nov 2013
    Umbilical cord antiseptics for preventing sepsis and death among newborns
    The umbilical cord connects the baby and mother during pregnancy. The cord is cut after birth. The cord stump then dries and falls off, generally within five to 15 days. Infection of the umbilical cord stump (omphalitis), caused by skin bacteria, is a significant cause of illness and death in newborn babies in developing countries. This review evaluated ...
  2. 30 Oct 2013
    Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour
    Prophylactic oxytocin at any dose used routinely after birth can reduce blood loss with fewer side effects than ergot alkaloids. The third stage of labour is that period from birth of the baby until delivery of the placenta, however, complications can continue to occur once the placenta is removed. The degree of blood loss during this stage depends, ...
  3. 15 Jul 2013
    Postpartum misoprostol for preventing maternal mortality and morbidity
    Bleeding from the uterus or womb after childbirth is normal, but excessive bleeding (haemorrhage) is an important cause of death and can be reduced by medication that causes the uterus to contract. Misoprostol is one such medication and is a tablet marketed to treat certain stomach ulcers but which also contracts the uterus and reduces bleeding. It ...
  4. 11 Jul 2013
    Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on mother and baby outcomes
    At the time of birth, the infant is still attached to the mother via the umbilical cord, which is part of the placenta. The infant is usually separated from the placenta by clamping the cord. This clamping is one part of the third stage of labour (the time from birth of the baby until delivery of the placenta) and the timing can vary according to clinical ...
  5. 1 Jul 2013
    Uterine massage for preventing postpartum haemorrhage
    Bleeding after childbirth (postpartum haemorrhage) is the leading cause of maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, and yet it is largely preventable. Possible causes of heavy bleeding directly following childbirth or within the first 24 hours are that the uterus fails to contract after delivery (uterine atony), a retained placenta, inverted ...
  6. 28 Feb 2013
    Topical umbilical cord care at birth
    No evidence that applying sprays, creams or powders are any better than keeping the baby's cord clean and dry at birth. The umbilical cord connects the baby to its food and oxygen supply in the womb, and is clamped and cut at birth. The cord stump dries, shrivels and becomes black before falling off the baby's belly button, five to 15 days after birth. ...
  7. 31 Jan 2013
    Upright or recumbent positions in late labour for women using an epidural for pain relief in labour
    An epidural is the most effective method for pain relief during labour. It is often used by women even though it can prolong labour and increase the need for forceps and ventouse (vacuum) birth. Instrumental deliveries are associated with the possibility of the woman developing prolapse, urinary incontinence, or painful sexual intercourse. Low-dose ...
  8. 14 Nov 2012
    Episiotomy for vaginal birth
    Vaginal tears can occur during childbirth, most often at the vaginal opening as the baby's head passes through, especially if the baby descends quickly. Tears can involve the perineal skin or extend to the muscles and the anal sphincter and anus. The midwife or obstetrician may decide to make a surgical cut to the perineum with scissors or scalpel (episiotomy) ...
  9. 15 Aug 2012
    Early cord clamping versus delayed cord clamping or cord milking for preterm babies
    In the womb, the baby's blood flows through the umbilical cord to and from the baby and the placenta bringing oxygen and nutrition to the baby from the mother's blood. If the umbilical cord is left unclamped for a short time after the birth, some of the blood from the placenta passes to the baby (this is called placental transfusion) to increase the ...
  10. 15 Aug 2012
    Prostaglandins for preventing postpartum haemorrhage
    An injectable uterotonic is the drug of choice for routine third stage management when the placenta is delivered. Oral or sublingual misoprostol may be used where no injectable uterotonic is available. After her baby is born, the woman's womb (uterus) contracts and bleeding decreases. If the womb does not contract, postpartum haemorrhage (heavy bleeding) ...

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