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  1. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age Updated
    Question We reviewed the evidence on the effect of antibiotics on clinical outcomes in children with bronchiolitis. Background Bronchiolitis is a serious respiratory illness that affects babies. It is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and is the most common reason for hospitalisation in babies younger than six months. Babies ...
  2. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients Updated
    Review question This review studied the effects of antibiotics on adolescents and adults with pneumonia acquired and treated in the community (as opposed to acquiring pneumonia in hospital and/or being treated for pneumonia in hospital). The evidence is current to March 2014. Background Lower respiratory tract infection is the third leading cause ...
  3. 1 Oct 2014
    Antibiotic treatment for the prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV immunocompromised patients Updated
    Pneumocystis jiroveci is a fungus causing pneumonia mainly among patients with an impaired immune system, such as those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer patients, following organ transplantation, and patients receiving immune suppressive medications. Previous evidence shows that preventive antibiotic treatment (before the ...
  4. 22 Sep 2014
    Treatment of the cough in whooping cough Updated
    Review question We reviewed the evidence from 12 studies about the effect of treatments for cough in patients with whooping cough. Background We wanted to discover whether any medicines are effective at treating cough in patients with whooping cough (also known as pertussis). These medicines included pertussis immunoglobulin (antibodies to increase ...
  5. 17 Sep 2014
    Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough (pertussis) in children
    Review question We aimed to answer the question of whether acellular pertussis vaccines are as effective as the whole-cell vaccines at protecting children against whooping cough (pertussis), but with fewer side effects. Background Whooping cough can be a serious respiratory infection in children and is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis ...
  6. 15 Sep 2014
    Rapid viral testing for children in the Emergency Department with fever and respiratory symptoms Updated
    Review question Does rapid viral testing in the Emergency Department influence the treatment of children with fever and breathing symptoms? Background Otherwise healthy children, aged 0 to 18 years, admitted to Emergency Departments (EDs) with fever and respiratory symptoms represent a major burden to the healthcare system, as well as significant ...
  7. 9 Sep 2014
    Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease New
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of a non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) (NTHi) vaccine in preventing repeated H. influenzae infections in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic bronchitis. Background People with COPD can often have frequent infections that worsen symptoms of ...
  8. 5 Aug 2014
    Pneumococcal vaccines for children and adults with cystic fibrosis
    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease which causes mucus in the lungs to be more sticky than normal, leading to frequent lung infections and lung damage. Pneumococcus is a type of bacteria that can cause infection throughout the body, including in the urine, blood stream, fluid around the brain and in the lungs. These infections can be very serious ...
  9. 7 Jul 2014
    Interventions to increase influenza (flu) vaccination uptake for people aged 60 and older
    Many health authorities recommend influenza vaccination of older people. However, vaccination uptake in people aged 60 and older varies across countries, socioeconomic and health-risk groups. It is important to identify effective interventions to increase influenza vaccination uptake. We included 57 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 896,531 participants ...
  10. 17 Jun 2014
    Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis for infants with first-time wheezing
    What is bronchiolitis? Bronchiolitis is an acute, highly contagious, viral infection of the lungs that is common in infants 0 to 12 months of age. It occurs every year in the winter months. It causes the small airways in the lungs to become inflamed and fill with debris. The airways are narrowed and this leads to blocking of the free passage of air. ...

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