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  1. 29 Oct 2014
    Quantitative versus qualitative cultures of respiratory secretions in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia Updated
    Review question We wanted to determine whether quantitative cultures of respiratory secretions are effective in reducing mortality in immunocompetent patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia compared with qualitative cultures. We also evaluated changes in antibiotic use, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation. Background Ventilator-associated ...
  2. 29 Oct 2014
    The rapid test GenoType® MTBDRsl for testing resistance to second-line TB drugs New
    Background Different drugs are available to treat people with tuberculosis (TB), but resistance to these drugs is a growing problem. People with drug-resistant TB are more likely to die than people with drug-susceptible TB. People with drug-resistant TB require "second-line" TB drugs that, compared with "first-line" TB drugs used to treat drug-susceptible ...
  3. 27 Oct 2014
    Decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation for acute sinusitis in children Updated
    Review question The goal of this review was to determine whether there is any evidence in the medical literature for or against the use of decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation for acute sinusitis in children. Background Young children experience an average of six to eight colds per year. Out of every 10 children with a cold, one develops ...
  4. 25 Oct 2014
    Probiotics for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia New
    Review question To critically assess the current evidence from published studies relating to the effect of probiotics for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Background VAP is a condition that can occur in patients who have been mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours and can significantly increase the likelihood of death within ...
  5. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age Updated
    Question We reviewed the evidence on the effect of antibiotics on clinical outcomes in children with bronchiolitis. Background Bronchiolitis is a serious respiratory illness that affects babies. It is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and is the most common reason for hospitalisation in babies younger than six months. Babies ...
  6. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients Updated
    Review question This review studied the effects of antibiotics on adolescents and adults with pneumonia acquired and treated in the community (as opposed to acquiring pneumonia in hospital and/or being treated for pneumonia in hospital). The evidence is current to March 2014. Background Lower respiratory tract infection is the third leading cause ...
  7. 1 Oct 2014
    Antibiotic treatment for the prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV immunocompromised patients Updated
    Pneumocystis jiroveci is a fungus causing pneumonia mainly among patients with an impaired immune system, such as those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer patients, following organ transplantation, and patients receiving immune suppressive medications. Previous evidence shows that preventive antibiotic treatment (before the ...
  8. 22 Sep 2014
    Treatment of the cough in whooping cough Updated
    Review question We reviewed the evidence from 12 studies about the effect of treatments for cough in patients with whooping cough. Background We wanted to discover whether any medicines are effective at treating cough in patients with whooping cough (also known as pertussis). These medicines included pertussis immunoglobulin (antibodies to increase ...
  9. 17 Sep 2014
    Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough (pertussis) in children
    Review question We aimed to answer the question of whether acellular pertussis vaccines are as effective as the whole-cell vaccines at protecting children against whooping cough (pertussis), but with fewer side effects. Background Whooping cough can be a serious respiratory infection in children and is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis ...
  10. 15 Sep 2014
    Rapid viral testing for children in the Emergency Department with fever and respiratory symptoms Updated
    Review question Does rapid viral testing in the Emergency Department influence the treatment of children with fever and breathing symptoms? Background Otherwise healthy children, aged 0 to 18 years, admitted to Emergency Departments (EDs) with fever and respiratory symptoms represent a major burden to the healthcare system, as well as significant ...

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