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  1. 10 Oct 2014
    The effect of taking antimalarial drugs routinely to prevent malaria in pregnancy Updated
    Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. For this reason, women are encouraged to try and prevent malaria infection during pregnancy by sleeping under mosquito bed-nets, and by taking drugs effective against malaria throughout ...
  2. 9 Oct 2014
    Antiepileptic drugs for the primary and secondary prevention of seizures in viral encephalitis New
    Viral encephalitis is characterised by inflammation and swelling of the brain and is caused by viral infection. Seizures can occur both during viral encephalitis and as a later consequence following resolution of the infection. Patients who have seizures during encephalitis are more likely to die or have a disability; some may also develop prolonged ...
  3. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age Updated
    Question We reviewed the evidence on the effect of antibiotics on clinical outcomes in children with bronchiolitis. Background Bronchiolitis is a serious respiratory illness that affects babies. It is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and is the most common reason for hospitalisation in babies younger than six months. Babies ...
  4. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients Updated
    Review question This review studied the effects of antibiotics on adolescents and adults with pneumonia acquired and treated in the community (as opposed to acquiring pneumonia in hospital and/or being treated for pneumonia in hospital). The evidence is current to March 2014. Background Lower respiratory tract infection is the third leading cause ...
  5. 1 Oct 2014
    Antibiotic treatment for the prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV immunocompromised patients Updated
    Pneumocystis jiroveci is a fungus causing pneumonia mainly among patients with an impaired immune system, such as those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer patients, following organ transplantation, and patients receiving immune suppressive medications. Previous evidence shows that preventive antibiotic treatment (before the ...
  6. 1 Oct 2014
    Antibiotic use before amniotomy (artificially rupturing the membranes) for reducing infections in mother and infant New
    The artificial rupture of the membranes (amniotomy) is a common obstetrical procedure. It may be done to either initiate or to augment labour, with or without oxytocin. This invasive procedure allows vaginal micro-organisms access into the uterine cavity, which can in turn lead to infections in both the mother and the infant. A greater time interval ...
  7. 22 Sep 2014
    Treatment of the cough in whooping cough Updated
    Review question We reviewed the evidence from 12 studies about the effect of treatments for cough in patients with whooping cough. Background We wanted to discover whether any medicines are effective at treating cough in patients with whooping cough (also known as pertussis). These medicines included pertussis immunoglobulin (antibodies to increase ...
  8. 17 Sep 2014
    Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough (pertussis) in children
    Review question We aimed to answer the question of whether acellular pertussis vaccines are as effective as the whole-cell vaccines at protecting children against whooping cough (pertussis), but with fewer side effects. Background Whooping cough can be a serious respiratory infection in children and is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis ...
  9. 15 Sep 2014
    Rapid viral testing for children in the Emergency Department with fever and respiratory symptoms Updated
    Review question Does rapid viral testing in the Emergency Department influence the treatment of children with fever and breathing symptoms? Background Otherwise healthy children, aged 0 to 18 years, admitted to Emergency Departments (EDs) with fever and respiratory symptoms represent a major burden to the healthcare system, as well as significant ...
  10. 14 Sep 2014
    Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections (excluding group B streptococcal and HIV) Updated
    Bacteria live in women's vaginas and generally cause no problems. Very occasionally they infect the placenta during labour and can pass to the baby, causing an infection. These infections can occasionally make the baby very ill and very occasionally the baby might die. The review of three trials (3012 participants) found there was not enough information ...

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