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  1. 29 Oct 2014
    Quantitative versus qualitative cultures of respiratory secretions in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia Updated
    Review question We wanted to determine whether quantitative cultures of respiratory secretions are effective in reducing mortality in immunocompetent patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia compared with qualitative cultures. We also evaluated changes in antibiotic use, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation. Background Ventilator-associated ...
  2. 29 Oct 2014
    The rapid test GenoType® MTBDRsl for testing resistance to second-line TB drugs New
    Background Different drugs are available to treat people with tuberculosis (TB), but resistance to these drugs is a growing problem. People with drug-resistant TB are more likely to die than people with drug-susceptible TB. People with drug-resistant TB require "second-line" TB drugs that, compared with "first-line" TB drugs used to treat drug-susceptible ...
  3. 27 Oct 2014
    Decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation for acute sinusitis in children Updated
    Review question The goal of this review was to determine whether there is any evidence in the medical literature for or against the use of decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation for acute sinusitis in children. Background Young children experience an average of six to eight colds per year. Out of every 10 children with a cold, one develops ...
  4. 25 Oct 2014
    Probiotics for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia New
    Review question To critically assess the current evidence from published studies relating to the effect of probiotics for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Background VAP is a condition that can occur in patients who have been mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours and can significantly increase the likelihood of death within ...
  5. 24 Oct 2014
    Treatments to cure long-term infections with Burkholderia cepacia in people with cystic fibrosis New
    Review question We reviewed the evidence for antibiotic treatment to cure early infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis and prevent it becoming permanent. Background Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease and people who have this disease produce large amounts of thick mucus which is difficult to clear. This mucus ...
  6. 10 Oct 2014
    The effect of taking antimalarial drugs routinely to prevent malaria in pregnancy Updated
    Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. For this reason, women are encouraged to try and prevent malaria infection during pregnancy by sleeping under mosquito bed-nets, and by taking drugs effective against malaria throughout ...
  7. 9 Oct 2014
    Antiepileptic drugs for the primary and secondary prevention of seizures in viral encephalitis New
    Viral encephalitis is characterised by inflammation and swelling of the brain and is caused by viral infection. Seizures can occur both during viral encephalitis and as a later consequence following resolution of the infection. Patients who have seizures during encephalitis are more likely to die or have a disability; some may also develop prolonged ...
  8. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age Updated
    Question We reviewed the evidence on the effect of antibiotics on clinical outcomes in children with bronchiolitis. Background Bronchiolitis is a serious respiratory illness that affects babies. It is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and is the most common reason for hospitalisation in babies younger than six months. Babies ...
  9. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients Updated
    Review question This review studied the effects of antibiotics on adolescents and adults with pneumonia acquired and treated in the community (as opposed to acquiring pneumonia in hospital and/or being treated for pneumonia in hospital). The evidence is current to March 2014. Background Lower respiratory tract infection is the third leading cause ...
  10. 9 Oct 2014
    Hepatitis B virus vaccine for People Living With HIV/AIDS
    Study Question This review seeks to determine whether vaccine for hepatitis B virus is effective in protecting people who have HIV against hepatitis B virus infection. It also seeks to determine if the vaccine is safe in people living with HIV. Background Hepatitis B virus infection can be acquired through contact with body fluids of infected people. ...

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