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  1. 2 Apr 2014
    Vaccination against a bacterium called pneumococcus for preventing middle ear infection Updated
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of vaccination against pneumococcus (a type of bacterium) on preventing middle ear infections in children. Background Middle ear infection, or otitis media, is one of the most common respiratory infections in childhood. Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a frequent cause ...
  2. 12 Mar 2014
    Auditory-verbal therapy for promoting spoken language development in children with permanent hearing impairments New
    Permanent hearing impairment greatly restricts a child's speech and language development and hinders his or her behavioural, cognitive and social functioning. Although technological devices, such as hearing aids and cochlear implants, enable the child to hear spoken words, they fail to teach the child how to listen, how to process language or how to ...
  3. 20 Feb 2014
    Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold Podcast
    Preparations of the plant Echinacea are widely used in some European countries and in North America for common colds. Echinacea preparations available on the market differ greatly as different types (species) and parts (herb, root or both) of the plant are used, different manufacturing methods (drying, alcoholic extraction or pressing out the juice ...
  4. 15 Feb 2014
    Medical treatments for throat cancer (oropharyngeal cancer) that is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
    Recent studies suggest a connection between a virus (human papillomavirus) and throat cancer (oropharyngeal cancer) in some patients. This review has been conducted to assess potential new treatments that have emerged as a result of this information. When diagnosed, throat cancers can be at an advanced stage and radiotherapy (which uses beams of radiation ...
  5. 31 Jan 2014
    Hearing aids for tinnitus in people with hearing loss
    Background Tinnitus describes 'ringing', 'whooshing' or 'hissing' sounds that are heard in the absence of any corresponding external sound. About 10% of people experience tinnitus and for some it has a significant negative impact on their quality of life. Tinnitus is commonly associated with some form of hearing loss and is possibly the result of ...
  6. 13 Dec 2013
    Dosage intervals of amoxicillin for the treatment of acute middle ear infection
    Acute middle ear infection (acute otitis media) is a very common disease in children and may cause pain and hearing loss. Delayed or ineffective treatment may lead to serious complications such as ear drum perforation, sensorineural hearing loss or the disease becoming chronic. Amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, is the most commonly used antibiotic ...
  7. 5 Nov 2013
    Antibiotics for people with sore throats
    Question This review sought to determine whether antibiotics are effective for treating the symptoms and reducing the potential complications associated with sore throats. Background Sore throats are infections caused by bacteria or viruses. People usually recover quickly (usually after three or four days), although some develop complications. ...
  8. 10 Oct 2013
    Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children
    Croup is a common childhood illness which primarily affects those between the ages of six months and three years, with a peak annual incidence in the second year of life of nearly five per cent. Males and females are affected equally. Croup is most often caused by a viral infection. Symptoms of croup include a hoarse voice, a 'barking' cough and noisy ...
  9. 10 Sep 2013
    Oral rinses, mouthwashes and sprays for improving outcomes following tonsillectomy
    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common operations performed in adults and children. Pain and bleeding following the operation are common. Postoperative tonsillectomy medication should aim to minimise some of these symptoms. A number of mouthwashes and topical sprays are available which offer pain relief or can help to reduce bleeding in the period ...
  10. 29 Jul 2013
    Antibiotics to prevent acute ear infections in children
    Acute otitis media (AOM, infection in the middle ear space) is common in children, causing pain and deafness. Most children experience at least one episode and some children suffer recurrent AOM (more than three episodes in six months or four episodes in 12 months), and some progress to eardrum perforation. Interventions (antibiotics, vaccines or reduced ...

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