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  1. 31 Jul 2014
    Does the administration of nalbuphine provide effective and safe postoperative pain treatment in children?
    Postoperative pain is still a major problem following surgery in children. There is currently clear evidence that multimodal postoperative pain treatment is the best choice. This approach may involve using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids. However, due to the fear of side effects such as respiratory depression (where the lungs ...
  2. 28 Jan 2014
    Clonidine premedication for postoperative pain in children
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of giving clonidine before anaesthesia (that is, as a premedication) on postoperative pain in children. Background Pain after operations remains a major problem for children undergoing surgery. Premedication is the practice of giving a drug to reduce anxiety or provide sedation, or both, ...
  3. 23 Jan 2014
    Skin-to-skin (Kangaroo Care) with newborns cuts down procedural pain
    Newborns wearing only a diaper being held next to their mother's bare chest is referred to as skin-to-skin contact and is also sometimes called Kangaroo Care because of its similarity to the way kangaroo mothers care for their young. Newborns, especially those who must spend time in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, must have various tests and procedures ...
  4. 9 Dec 2013
    Treatment for jellyfish stings Podcast
    Jellyfish stings are common in temperate coastal regions around the world. Specialised stinging cells on the jellyfish called nematocysts produce the sting. The stings of different jellyfish species produce different symptoms of varying severity. Milder symptoms include pain and skin reactions such as redness and itching at the site of the sting. This ...
  5. 10 Oct 2013
    Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents
    Psychological interventions (for example, distraction, hypnosis, coping skills training) are treatments used to reduce pain and distress (anxiety and fear, or both) that children and adolescents experience while undergoing medical procedures involving needles. There is strong evidence that distraction and hypnosis are effective in reducing the pain ...
  6. 5 Oct 2013
    Transdermal fentanyl for cancer pain
    Fentanyl patches placed on the skin produced good pain relief for most people with moderate or severe cancer pain. One person in two or three who gets cancer will suffer from pain that becomes moderate or severe in intensity. The pain tends to get worse as the cancer progresses. Morphine taken by mouth has been used since the 1950s for controlling cancer ...
  7. 24 Jun 2013
    Single dose oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol (acetaminophen) for acute postoperative pain
    Acute pain is often felt soon after injury, and most people who have surgery will have pain of moderate or severe intensity without treatment for their pain. In many, though not all, circumstances, the pain can be treated with oral analgesics. Many oral analgesics are available, and this review is one of a series examining how effective each one is, ...
  8. 28 Feb 2013
    Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related pain in infants up to one year of age
    The use of needles that break the skin and cause pain is a common practice around the world with babies aged between one month and 12 months (Appendix 4). In this review we were interested in whether giving babies sugar-based solutions to taste when the needle breaks the skin will help reduce their pain.  We found 14 separate studies that had asked ...
  9. 16 May 2012
    Non-pharmacological interventions for acute pain in infants
    We examined 13 different types of commonly investigated non-pharmacological treatments (excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music) to determine their efficacy for pain reactions after an acutely painful procedure (right after the needle ('pain reactivity') and less immediate pain reactions ('immediate pain-related regulation'). Fifty-one randomized controlled ...
  10. 5 Oct 2011
    Single doses of intravenous formulations of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to reduce pain after surgery in adults and children
    Pain is commonly experienced after surgical procedures and multiple medications are routinely used to control it. This review assessed data from 36 studies of participants (3896 in total) experiencing moderate to severe pain after various operations. It found that intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol (either IV propacetamol or IV paracetamol) ...

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