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  1. 7 Mar 2014
    High-flow nasal cannula therapy for support of breathing in children New
    We reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy in supporting children's breathing. We found 11 studies in children. Background HFNC therapy delivers a mixture of air and oxygen via tubing that sits just inside the nostrils. For children hospitalized with breathing difficulties caused by conditions such as pneumonia ...
  2. 7 Feb 2014
    Intravenous versus inhaled anaesthesia for children having day surgery procedures
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effects of general anaesthesia (GA) for children having day surgery. The GA was given to the children either by intravenous injection (injection of a drug such as propofol or thiopental) or by the child inhaling or breathing a gas such as sevoflurane or halothane through a mask. We found 16 studies ...
  3. 28 Jan 2014
    Clonidine premedication for postoperative pain in children
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of giving clonidine before anaesthesia (that is, as a premedication) on postoperative pain in children. Background Pain after operations remains a major problem for children undergoing surgery. Premedication is the practice of giving a drug to reduce anxiety or provide sedation, or both, ...
  4. 25 Jan 2014
    Effects of spinals and epidurals on perioperative death, myocardial infarction and pneumonia: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews
    Epidurals and spinals are anaesthetic techniques that block the transmission of painful stimuli from a surgical site to the brain at the level of the spinal cord. They allow the surgeon to perform surgery on the lower part of the abdomen (below the umbilicus) or on the lower limbs with no painful sensation while the person remains conscious. In this ...
  5. 23 Jan 2014
    Skin-to-skin (Kangaroo Care) with newborns cuts down procedural pain
    Newborns wearing only a diaper being held next to their mother's bare chest is referred to as skin-to-skin contact and is also sometimes called Kangaroo Care because of its similarity to the way kangaroo mothers care for their young. Newborns, especially those who must spend time in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, must have various tests and procedures ...
  6. 20 Dec 2013
    Resistance training for fibromyalgia
    Research question We conducted a review of studies on resistance training for people with fibromyalgia. We found five studies with 219 women with fibromyalgia, 95 of whom were assigned to resistance training programs. Because all of the participants were women, we do not know if these results would be the same for men. Background: what is fibromyalgia ...
  7. 9 Dec 2013
    Treatment for jellyfish stings Podcast
    Jellyfish stings are common in temperate coastal regions around the world. Specialised stinging cells on the jellyfish called nematocysts produce the sting. The stings of different jellyfish species produce different symptoms of varying severity. Milder symptoms include pain and skin reactions such as redness and itching at the site of the sting. This ...
  8. 12 Nov 2013
    Nurse-led assessment of fitness for surgery
    Before people undergo surgery, they must be examined so the practitioner can confirm that they are fit enough to tolerate the procedure. Traditionally, doctors have performed this assessment after admission to hospital and before surgery, but as many people now have day-case surgery, fitness is frequently assessed in nurse-led outpatient clinics. These ...
  9. 11 Nov 2013
    Oxcarbazepine for neuropathic pain
    Neuropathic pain is pain that arises from damage to the part of the nervous system that carries sensory information to the brain. It is difficult to treat because of its severity, duration and resistance to simple painkillers. Some studies have suggested that oxcarbazepine, when given on its own, can relieve pain from nerve damage. To investigate the ...
  10. 10 Oct 2013
    Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents
    Psychological interventions (for example, distraction, hypnosis, coping skills training) are treatments used to reduce pain and distress (anxiety and fear, or both) that children and adolescents experience while undergoing medical procedures involving needles. There is strong evidence that distraction and hypnosis are effective in reducing the pain ...

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