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  1. 16 Jul 2014
    Mannitol versus hypertonic saline for intraoperative brain relaxation in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumour New
    Review question: We reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of mannitol and hypertonic saline for brain relaxation in people having surgery (craniotomy) for brain tumour. Background: People with brain tumour undergo a craniotomy, or opening of the skull bone, for its removal. A relaxed brain allows the surgeon to remove the skull bone easily and to ...
  2. 3 Jul 2014
    Inhaled nitric oxide to treat high blood pressure of the pulmonary vessels after surgery in infants and children with congenital heart disease Updated
    Review question We reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide for treatment of high blood pressure in the pulmonary vessels in infants and children born with heart disease. Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary vessels that affects various patient populations and can cause ...
  3. 10 Jun 2014
    Do ventilators that manage the reduction of ventilator support (weaning) reduce the duration of weaning compared to strategies managed by clinicians? Updated
    Background and importance Critically ill patients receiving assistance from breathing machines (ventilators) may be restored to normal breathing using clinical methods (collectively termed weaning) that require both expertise and continuous monitoring. Inefficient weaning may result in a prolonged time on a ventilator, putting patients at risk of ...
  4. 7 May 2014
    Low blood oxygen levels versus normal blood oxygen levels in ventilated severely ill people
    Review questions We reviewed the evidence to see whether allowing for low blood oxygen levels, as opposed to normal blood oxygen levels, in severely ill people on mechanical breathing machines (ventilators) in intensive care units (ICUs) (otherwise known as critical care units (CCUs)) changed their chances of recovery (morbidity) and survival rate ...
  5. 5 May 2014
    Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents
    Psychological therapies (e.g. relaxation, hypnosis, coping skills training, biofeedback, and cognitive behavioural therapy) may help people manage pain and its disabling consequences. Therapies can be delivered face-to-face by a therapist, via the Internet, by telephone call, or by computer programme. This review focuses on treatments that are delivered ...
  6. 5 May 2014
    Neostigmine for reversing muscle paralysis in children following surgery
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about whether neostigmine should be routinely used to prevent residual muscle paralysis in children who received muscle relaxants during surgery. Background Neuromuscular blocks are drugs that cause paralysis of the skeletal muscles. They are used to facilitate certain surgical procedures. Residual muscle ...
  7. 7 Mar 2014
    High-flow nasal cannula therapy for support of breathing in children
    We reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy in supporting children's breathing. We found 11 studies in children. Background HFNC therapy delivers a mixture of air and oxygen via tubing that sits just inside the nostrils. For children hospitalized with breathing difficulties caused by conditions such as pneumonia ...
  8. 7 Feb 2014
    Intravenous versus inhaled anaesthesia for children having day surgery procedures
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effects of general anaesthesia (GA) for children having day surgery. The GA was given to the children either by intravenous injection (injection of a drug such as propofol or thiopental) or by the child inhaling or breathing a gas such as sevoflurane or halothane through a mask. We found 16 studies ...
  9. 28 Jan 2014
    Clonidine premedication for postoperative pain in children
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of giving clonidine before anaesthesia (that is, as a premedication) on postoperative pain in children. Background Pain after operations remains a major problem for children undergoing surgery. Premedication is the practice of giving a drug to reduce anxiety or provide sedation, or both, ...
  10. 25 Jan 2014
    Effects of spinals and epidurals on perioperative death, myocardial infarction and pneumonia: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews
    Epidurals and spinals are anaesthetic techniques that block the transmission of painful stimuli from a surgical site to the brain at the level of the spinal cord. They allow the surgeon to perform surgery on the lower part of the abdomen (below the umbilicus) or on the lower limbs with no painful sensation while the person remains conscious. In this ...

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