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  1. 15 Oct 2014
    Is it better to do strabismus (squint) surgery before or after completing amblyopia (lazy eye) treatment? New
    Background In normal development of vision, children are able to use the visual information from each of their two eyes to form a single image. When an infant or child's eyes are not properly aligned, this is called strabismus (also known as squint). With misalignment, the two eyes do not work together to relay visual information. The brain may suppress ...
  2. 15 Oct 2014
    Blood thinners to prevent blood clots in people with cancer and central venous catheters Updated
    Background A central venous catheter (CVC) is a tube that is inserted into a large vein to give fluids or drugs. CVC placement increases the risk of blood clots in people with cancer. This systematic review evaluated the efficacy and safety of blood thinning agents (anticoagulants) in people with cancer. Study characteristics We searched the scientific ...
  3. 15 Oct 2014
    Non-nutritive sucking for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in preterm and low birth weight infants New
    Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux is the passage of the contents of the stomach into the oesophagus (feeding tube) with or without vomiting. It is relatively common in preterm infants and can sometimes lead to troublesome complications. Non-nutritive sucking is sucking on a dummy (pacifier) before, during, or after feeding by tube; before or after ...
  4. 14 Oct 2014
    Cannabis for schizophrenia Updated
    Many people with the serious mental illness schizophrenia smoke cannabis but it is not known why people do so or the effects of smoking cannabis. It is unclear what the best methods are that help people to reduce or stop smoking cannabis. Cannabis is the most consumed illicit drug in the world – amounting to 120 to 224 million users. Cannabis, which ...
  5. 13 Oct 2014
    Pancreatic enzyme supplements for people with cystic fibrosis New
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about how good pancreatic enzyme supplements are in overcoming the enzyme deficiency in people with cystic fibrosis and if these supplements have any side effects. Background Between 80% and 90% of people with cystic fibrosis take pancreatic enzyme supplements. In these people, the pancreas is often not able ...
  6. 10 Oct 2014
    Gene therapy for sickle cell disease Updated
    Sickle cell disease results when a child inherits faulty genes for producing haemoglobin from both parents. It is a disease that is linked with frequent illness from early life and often results in death earlier than in the general population. Gene therapy replaces these faulty genes with normal ones. We looked for trials that used this approach of ...
  7. 10 Oct 2014
    Intranasal fentanyl for the treatment of children in acute pain New
    Background Pain is the most common reason why patients are seen in emergency departments (EDs). The challenging nature of treating children in acute severe pain is reflected in the medical literature by poor pain management in this population. We reviewed evidence on the effect of intranasal fentanyl (INF) (a strong pain relief drug, similar to morphine) ...
  8. 9 Oct 2014
    Antiepileptic drugs for the primary and secondary prevention of seizures in viral encephalitis New
    Viral encephalitis is characterised by inflammation and swelling of the brain and is caused by viral infection. Seizures can occur both during viral encephalitis and as a later consequence following resolution of the infection. Patients who have seizures during encephalitis are more likely to die or have a disability; some may also develop prolonged ...
  9. 9 Oct 2014
    Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age Updated
    Question We reviewed the evidence on the effect of antibiotics on clinical outcomes in children with bronchiolitis. Background Bronchiolitis is a serious respiratory illness that affects babies. It is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and is the most common reason for hospitalisation in babies younger than six months. Babies ...
  10. 9 Oct 2014
    Inhaled corticosteroids for cystic fibrosis Updated
    Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of inhaled corticosteroids in people with cystic fibrosis. Background Repeated chest infections in people with cystic fibrosis cause inflammation and damage to the lungs which, in the long term, is the most common reason for death in people with cystic fibrosis. Inhaled corticosteroids are ...

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