Cancer patients develop neutropenia, a decrease in the neutrophil subset of the white blood cells, as a result of chemotherapy. Neutropenia exposes patients to infections, mainly bacterial. Without antibiotic treatment these infections may be fatal, therefore antibiotic treatment is administered when a patient with neutropenia develops fever. The objective of this review was to compare antibiotic treatments currently recommended in consensus guidelines for the initial treatment of cancer patients with fever and neutropenia.
We identified 44 studies comparing different antibiotics. Cefepime resulted in significantly higher mortality compared to all other antibiotics combined, at the end of patients' hospital stay or 30 days after entry into the study. The risk was 39% higher with cefepime, ranging from 4 to 86% increased risk. We did not find an explanation for this when looking into other outcomes reported in the primary studies. Piperacillin-tazobactam resulted in lower mortality than other antibiotics. The other antibiotics (ceftazidime, imipenem and meropenem) showed comparable efficacy, with a lower rate of antibiotic changes for imipenem or meropenem and a higher rate of severe diarrhea with these two antibiotics.
We conclude that piperacillin-tazobactam might be the preferred antibiotic for the treatment of cancer patients with fever and neutropenia and that cefepime should not be used. Antibiotic selection (other than cefepime) depends on the individual patient and the type of bacteria prevalent in the specific hospital.