Iodine deficiency causes mental retardation in children as well as enlarged thyroid glands (goitre) and deficiencies in thyroid hormones in people of all ages. It still exists in large parts of the world. This review looked at studies of iodised salt in the diet that included a comparison group. Six studies, most of them in children but some also in adults, were included. Iodine in the urine increased in all but one studies, but there was some concern that small children did not eat enough salt to achieve adequate iodine status. Some studies, but not all, also showed a reduction in the enlargement of the thyroid gland (goitre) that can accompany lack of iodine in the diet. Adverse effects were not reported, but these may not have been studied adequately. More high quality long term studies measuring outcomes related to child development, to deaths associated with iodine-deficiency and to adverse effects are needed.
Iodised salt for preventing iodine deficiency disorders
21 January 2009