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Laparoscopy ( "keyhole" surgery ) has fewer complications than other forms of tubal ligation ( tying the tubes for contraception ), but requires more skills and equipment

Kulier R, Boulvain M, Walker DM., De Candolle G, Campana A
Published Online: 
15 April 2009

Tubal ligation or sterilisation ( tying the tubes ) is a common method of fertility regulation. It is usually done by using the following methods: mini-laparotomy ( through a small cut in the abdomen ), laparoscopy ( "keyhole" surgery - through a tube inserted through the umbilicus ( belly button ) or a very small cut ), or culdoscopy ( using a tube, but through the vagina ). The review found that overall, laparoscopy had fewer complications than mini-laparotomy, but it requires more sophisticated expensive equipment and greater skills. Culdoscopy has higher rates of complications.